Macroeconomic analysis deals with the crucial issue of government involvement in the operation of “free market economy.” The Keynesian model suggests that it is the responsibility of the government to help to stabilize the economy. Stabilization policies (demand-side and supply-side policies) are undertaken by the federal government to counteract business cycle fluctuations and prevent high rates of unemployment and inflation. Demand side policies are government attempts to alter aggregate demand (AD) through using fiscal (cutting taxes and increasing government spending) or monetary policy (reducing interest rates). To shift the AD to the right, the government has to increase the government spending (the G-component of AD) causing consumer expenditures (the C-component of AD) to increase. Alternatively the Federal Reserve could cut interest rates reducing the cost of borrowing thereby encouraging consumer spending and investment borrowing. Both policies will lead to an increase in AD.
Develop an essay discussing the fiscal and the monetary policies adopted and implemented by the federal during the Great Recession and their impacts on the U.S. economy.