Examine individual and social factors that contribute to the vulnerability and disparity within communities or aggregates. There are numerous individual and social factors that contribute to vulnerability and disparity of health in our communities. Vulnerability means susceptibility to harm resulting from an interaction between resources available and/or life challenges. Factors that can result in vulnerability include developmental problems, personal incapacities, disadvantaged social status and lack of interpersonal support, degraded neighborhoods and environment; and the complex interactions of these factors over a life course (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007, p. 1220). Vulnerability may arise from individual, community, or larger population challenges and is a global concern (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007, p. 1220; Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 719). Vulnerable populations require different types of policy interventionsfrom social and economic development of neighborhoods and communities and educational and income policies, to individual medical interventions (Mechanic & Tanner, 2007, p. 1220; Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 719). Vulnerable populations include the poor, homeless, migrant workers, immigrants, pregnant adolescents, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and those with severe mental illness (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 720). These vulnerable groups are more likely to develop health problems due to exposure to risk, or have worse outcomes from health problems when compared to the rest of the population. These groups suffer from disparities in access to care and quality of care, and not surprisingly, have the poorest health outcomes. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2003) defined these disparities as racial or ethnic differences in the quality of care that are not due to access-related factors of clinical needs, preferences, and appropriateness of intervention (pp. 3-4). Healthy People 2020 (USDHHS, 2010), a federal initiative, discusses vulnerable population groups and identifies illness prevention and health promotion objectives. One of the four Healthy People 2020 goals is to eliminate health disparities. The project has been ongoing since the 1990s and has collected and analyzed massive amounts of data: a wealth of knowledge for those involved in initiatives to improve population health or identify community vulnerabilities (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 720; Healthy People 2020). References: Healthy People 2020 from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services at: http://www.healthypeople.gov. Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2012). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community. (8th ed). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Mechanic, D & Tanner, J. (September, 2007). Vulnerable people, groups, and populations: Societal view. Health Affairs, (26)5, pp. 1220-1230. Learning Activity #4: Vulnerability & Disparity within Communities or Aggregates Discussion Read Chapter 32 (pp. 719-726) in your Stanhope and Lancaster textbook. Review Healthy People 2020 from the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services at (http://www.healthypeople.gov) At a time when federal goals include eliminating health disparities, the proportion of vulnerable populations in the U.S. is increasing. Write two to three paragraphs that respond to the following: What extent do you think economic issues and social values play a role in the way that health services are offered to vulnerable population groups? Who should assume responsibility for providing health services to vulnerable populations? What role do you think nurse-managed centers and community health centers should provide in caring for vulnerable populations?