Below you will find a choice of three different essay questions. Select two questions from the list of essay prompts below and write a long essay response to each of the questions you select. To repeat: you only need to answer two of the following essay questions. Essays will be graded on the sophistication of the arguments and the depth of analysis presented, and not on the simple recapitulation of facts. Make sure, wherever possible, to make use of the primary sources we’ve looked at to support your points. Essays that don’t make use of any primary source evidence will not be given higher than a “C” grade for that particular essay. Each essay is worth 50pts, total exam = 100pts. Essays should be in a single word or pdf document. They should be 12pt font, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins. Each essay should be no less than two pages. While we will not be taking points off for going over the limit, please be advised that essays well under two pages will lose points for lack of thoroughness and effort. Please put both of your essays into one document and upload them to the assignment dropbox by 11:59pm on Sunday, December 8th. Consider the period of the Late Roman Republic, from the arrival of the Gracchi (ca. 133 BC) down to the outbreak of civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in 49 BC. What were some of the major issues or problems that lay behind the unraveling of the traditional, republican political order and the escalating frequency of civil unrest? You may wish to highlight specific individuals and why they were problematic, but also remember the role of certain classes or groups in the Roman socio-political order, as well as other unsolved problems that existed in the state/empire. Make sure to refer to primary sources throughout your arguments where possible. Octavian emerged from civil war in the Late Republic to become the sole ruler at Rome and over its empire. We regard him, particularly under the name Augustus, as the first Roman emperor, and he was arguably the most successful of any. Write an essay that specifically discusses why Augustus’ immediate successors, the Julio-Claudians, were nowhere near as successful in ruling as he had been. Focus carefully on what Augustus had created in terms of ruling and how effective the following four emperors (Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero) were in upholding and working with this. Make sure you refer to the primary sources we’ve looked at for the reign of Augustus and his successors. Identify at least three key developments that led to the “fall” of the Roman Empire in the West from about 200-500 AD. Make sure to explain how you think each of these developments affected, changed or reshaped society. You may want to think about both long-term issues as well as shorter-term crises or changes. Make sure to make use of the primary sources to support your points.