ADDITIONAL WORK / EXTRA PAGES: Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Results
The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the collected data, how it was analyzed and then to present the results. This section of Chapter 4 briefly restates the problem statement, the methodology, the research question(s), hypothesis(es) or phenomena, and then offers a statement about what will be covered in this chapter. Chapter 4 should present the results of the study as clearly as possible, leaving the interpretation of the results for Chapter 5. Make sure this chapter is written in past tense and reflects how the study was actually conducted.
This chapter typically contains the analyzed data, often presented in both text and tabular, or figure format. To ensure readability and clarity of findings, structure is of the utmost importance in this chapter. Sufficient guidance in the narrative should be provided to highlight the findings of greatest importance for the reader. Most researchers begin with a description of the sample and the relevant demographic characteristics presented in text or tabular format. Ask the following general questions before starting this chapter:
1. Is there sufficient data to answer each of the research question(s)/hypothesis(es) asked in the study?
2. Is there sufficient data to support the conclusions made in Chapter 5?
3. Is the study written in the third person? Never use the first person.
4. Are the data clearly explained using a table, graph, chart, or text?
Visual organizers, including tables and figures, must always be introduced, presented and discussed within the text first. Never insert them without these three steps. It is often best to develop all the tables, graphs, charts, etc. before writing any text to further clarify how to proceed. Point out the salient results and present those results by table, graph, chart, or other form of collected data.
*(Score = 0, 1, 2, or 3) Learner Score Chair Score Methodologist Score Content Expert Score
INTRODUCTION (TO THE CHAPTER)
(Minimum two to four paragraphs or approximately one page)
Reintroduces the purpose of the research study. X
Briefly describes the research methodology and/or research questions/hypotheses tested. X
Provides an orienting statement about what will be covered in the chapter. X
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format. X
*Score each requirement listed in the criteria table using the following scale:
0 = Item Not Present or Unacceptable. Substantial Revisions are Required.
1 = Item is Present. Does Not Meet Expectations. Revisions are Required.
2 = Item is Acceptable. Meets Expectations. Some Revisions May be Suggested or Required.
3 = Item Exceeds Expectations. No Revisions are Required.
This section of Chapter 4 provides a narrative summary of the population or sample characteristics and demographics of the participants in the study. It establishes the number of subjects, gender, age, education level or employee classification, (if appropriate), organization, or setting (if appropriate), and other appropriate sample characteristics (e.g., education level, program of study, employee classification, etc.). The use of graphic organizers, such as tables, charts, histograms and graphs to provide further clarification and promote readability, is encouraged to organize and present coded data. Ensure this data cannot lead to anyone identifying individual participants in this section or identifying the data for individual participants in the data summary and data analysis that follows.
For numbers, equations, and statistics, spell out any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading – or reword the sentence to place the number later in the narrative. In general, use Arabic numerals (10, 11, 12) when referring to whole numbers 10 and above, and spell out whole numbers below 10. There are some exceptions to this rule:
• If small numbers are grouped with large numbers in a comparison, use numerals (e.g., 7, 8, 10, and 13 trials); but, do not do this when numbers are used for different purposes (e.g., 10 items on each of four surveys).
• Numbers in a measurement with units (e.g., 6 cm, 5-mg dose, 2%).
• Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, sample or population size, scores, or exact sums of money.
• Numbers that represent a specific item in a numbered series (e.g., Table 1).
A sample table in APA style is presented in Table 1. Be mindful that all tables fit within the required margins, and are clean, easy to read, and formatted properly using the guidelines found in Chapter 5 (Displaying Results) of the APA Publication Manual 6.0 (2010).
Correct Formatting for a Multiple Line Table Title is Single Spacing and Should Look Like this Example
Variable Column A
M (SD) Column C
Row 1 10.1 (1.11) 20.2 (2.22) 30.3 (3.33)