The term paper is the most familiar and common student project. It is an essay argued on the basis of library research. You should begin with a clear and concise statement of a thesis and then develop and support your position with data and insights from scholarly research on the topic. It is very important to include the most recent writings on the topic. Be sure to also discuss arguments that may refute your thesis. Make use of the scholarly journal articles relevant to your question, not depending solely on books (and NOT internet sources). Become familiar not only with the literature on your topic but also the larger theoretical issues that frame it.